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中国职业足球联赛制度变迁与优化:基于效率与公平的视角
王会宗,赵丽丹
(山东大学 体育学院,济南 250061 ;山东大学 反垄断与规制经济学重点研究基地,济南 250100)
摘要:
采用文献资料法和数据分析法,借鉴新制度经济学和产业组织相关理论,基于效率与公平的视角,梳理中国职业足球联赛制度变迁历程。结合现行制度下足球联赛绩效现状,对联赛制度变迁的应然环境进行剖析,继而从青木昌彦提出的制度的三种历时联动机制出发探讨联赛制度的优化路径。发现:库兹涅茨曲线可用以解释我国职业体育领域收入分配与绩效之间的关系,为未来职业足球联赛制度改革指明了可能的方向;职业足球俱乐部竞技实力有限,职业足球联赛可竞争性不足,而制度失衡是联赛绩效低下的根本原因。未来应从完善市场体系和促进联赛参与主体协同方面培育中国职业足球联赛良好的制度环境。具体优化路径包括:继续深化体制改革,利用制度联动效应引导联赛市场竞争机制不断完善;创新制度互动模式,以制度联动机制再造和制度派生效应弥补非正式制度自发运行中的缺陷;形成更高层次制度互鉴,借助技术溢出效应孵化出我国特色职业联赛制度。
关键词:  职业足球联赛  制度变迁  效率与公平  体制改革  制度互动  制度互鉴
DOI:
投稿时间:2023-10-10
基金项目:国家社科基金重点项目“体育产业高质量发展的制度阻滞与治理现代化研究”(20ATY003)
Research on the Institutional Change and Optimization of Chinese Professional Football League: Based on the Perspective of Efficiency and Fairness
WANG Huizong,ZHAO Lidan
(School of Physical Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 , China ;Antitrust and Regulation Research Centre, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 , China)
Abstract:
By using the methods of literature and data analysis, drawing on the theory of new institutional economics and industrial organization, based on the perspective of efficiency and fairness, this paper combs the institutional change process of Chinese professional football league.Combined with the current situation of football league performance under the current system, this paper analyzes the ought-to-be environment of league system change, and then discusses the optimization path of league system from the three diachronic linkage mechanisms of the system proposed by Aoki Masahiko. It is found that the Kuznets curve can be used to explain the relationship between income distribution and performance in the field of professional sports in China, which points out the possible direction for the future reform of the professional football league system; the competitive strength of professional football clubs is limited, and the competition of professional football leagues is insufficient, and the institutional imbalance is the root cause of the low performance of the league. In the future, we should cultivate a good institutional environment for China’s professional football league from the aspects of improving the market system and promoting the coordination of league participants. The specific optimization paths include: continue to deepen the system reform, use the system linkage effect to guide the league market competition mechanism to improve continuously; innovate the interactive mode of the system, and make up for the defects in the spontaneous operation of the informal system with the reconstruction of the system linkage mechanism and the derivative effect of the system; form a higher level of institutional mutual learning, and incubate the professional league system with Chinese characteristics with the help of technology spillover effect.
Key words:  football professional league  institutional change  efficiency and fairness  system reform  institutional interaction  mutual learning of systems

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