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新中国成立以来我国中小学 体育课程目标的历史沿革
季永光
(南京师范大学 体育科学学院,南京210046)
摘要:
体育课程目标规定着体育课程与教学活动的基本方向和要求。运用文献资料法和逻辑分析法,对新中国成立以来国家发布的体育课程标准文件进行梳理和分析。认为,体育课程目标的发展历程包括引进和改造期、停滞期、恢复与重建期、快速发展期和深化改革期5个阶段;其经历了从单维的增强体质向三维健康的转变、从“三基”到“三维”再到“核心素养”的转变、从强调社会价值到凸显个人价值的转变、从单一的课程目标向体系化的转变。体育课程目标发展受到社会、学生个体和学科知识的制约,更要接受来自实践的考量。未来体育课程目标要坚守“个人全面发展”的根本追求,努力构建层次清晰、具有连续性和发展性的体系化的课程目标。
关键词:  中小学  体育课程目标  体育与健康课程标准  社会  学生  学科知识
DOI:
基金项目:
The Historical Evolution of PE Curriculum Objectives in Primary and Secondary Schools since the Founding of the People’s Republic of China
JI Yongguang
(College of Sports Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046, China)
Abstract:
The objective of physical education curriculum stipulates the basic direction and requirements of physical education curriculum and teaching activities. This paper adopts the literature method to sort out the standard documents of physical education curriculum issued by the state since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, and concludes that the objective of physical education curriculum has gone through five stages: introduction and reform period, stagnation period, recovery and reconstruction period, rapid development period and deepening reform period. It is concluded that the objective of physical education course has undergone the transformation from one dimensional “strengthening physical fitness” to three dimensional “health”, from “three basic” to “three dimensional” and then to “key competence”, from emphasizing “social value” to highlighting “individual value”, and from single course objective to “systematization”. The objective development of physical education curriculum is restricted by society, students’ individual and subject knowledge, and it is also tortured by practice. The goal of future physical education curriculum should stick to the fundamental pursuit of “personal allround development” and strive to build a systematic curriculum goal with clear hierarchy, continuity and development.
Key words:  primary and secondary schools  PE curriculum objectives  course standard of physical education and health  society  students  subject knowledge

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