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运动员人格权商品化的法律保护研究
杜梦瑶
0
(河北师范大学 体育学院)
摘要:
随着市场经济的发展,运动员人格标识的商业化特征日益明显,侵权行为也逐渐增多,存在未经许可使用、超出约定范围使用、合同到期还仍无偿使用等侵权行为。而立法层面,我国目前没有专门的人格权商品化法律,其保护条款主要分散于民事基本法、知识产权法、《反不正当竞争法》《侵权责任法》《广告法》等相关法律以及社会行业行为守则中,且存在较大的滞后性,如保护范围狭窄、损害赔偿责任方式不明确、没有规定继承和转让等。在司法实践方面,法院对人格权商品化性质的认定模糊不清,对人格权商品化侵权行为的认定缺乏明确的依据,也没有统一的赔偿和判决标准。为更好保护运动员的人格权,可借鉴同属大陆法系的德国的相关法律制度框架,完善与人格权相关的民事法律,健全《侵权责任法》救济途径,建立多元化的体育纠纷解决机制,完善体育仲裁制度。
关键词:  运动员;人格标识;人格权商品化;侵权;民法;救济;体育仲裁
DOI:
基金项目:
Research on Legal Protection of Commercialization of Athletes’ Personality Rights
DU Mengyao
(School of Physical Education, Hebei Normal University)
Abstract:
With the development of market economy, the commercialized characteristics of athletes’ personality identification are becoming more and more obvious, and the infringement behavior is increasing gradually. There are some infringements, such as unauthorized use, use beyond the agreed scope, and free use after the contract expires. At the legislative level, there is no special law on commercialization of personality rights in China. The protection clauses are mainly scattered in the civil basic law, intellectual property law, the AntiUnfair Competition Law, the Tort Liability Law, the Advertising Law, and other related laws and codes of conduct of the social industry. These laws and norms have great lag, such as narrow scope of protection, unclear mode of liability for damages, no provision for inheritance and transfer, etc.. In judicial practice, the court’s recognition of the commercialization nature of personality rights is vague, and there is no clear basis for the determination of the commercialization infringement of personality rights, nor a unified standard of compensation and judgment. In order to better protect athletes’ personality rights, we can draw lessons from the relevant legal system framework of Germany, improve the civil law related to personality rights, improve the remedy ways of the Tort Liability Law, establish a diversified sports dispute resolution mechanism, and improve the sports arbitration system.
Key words:  athletes; personality identification; commercialization of personality rights; tort; civil law; relief; sports arbitration

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