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有关超量恢复理论的辩与疑
李雪娇
0
(山东大学 体育学院)
摘要:
虽然超量恢复理论在运动训练领域的应用已达半个多世纪,但却一直饱受争议。运用文献资料法、逻辑分析法对超量恢复理论有关争论点进行全面梳理,以更深入认识该理论的优劣,更好发挥该理论在运动训练中的指导作用。首先,对超量恢复现象的发现及理论的提出、发展进行了回顾,总结了超量恢复理论的不同观点。其次,从实体性与功能性方面分别梳理有关研究对超量恢复理论的质疑。从实体性方面梳理,国内学者认为,超量恢复理论缺乏对人体极限的认识,忽视了个体差异及遗传因素对运动能力的影响,只从综合的角度进行统一的描述。国外学者则建立了“机能储备模型”“改变—适应的时间模型”“竞技潜能元模型”等理论模型对超量恢复理论的合理性提出质疑。从功能性方面梳理,很多教练员指出超量恢复理论在实际训练应用中的效果欠佳。如果个体按此训练只会使疲劳和负荷增多,导致运动机制崩溃。最后,对超量恢复理论进行总结,认为应与其他理论相结合才能发挥更大的作用,并进一步指出与结构存在理论、溢水理论、突变理论相结合是未来研究的新方向。
关键词:  超量恢复;超量代偿;竞技;训练;机能;负荷;质疑;结合
DOI:
基金项目:
A Discussion and Analysis of the Theory of Exceeding Recovery
LI Xuejiao
(School of Physical Education, Shandong University)
Abstract:
Although the theory of exceeding recovery has been applied in the field of sports training for more than half a century, it has been controversial. This article applies literature and logic analysis to comprehensively sort out the controversial issues related to the theory of exceeding recovery, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of the theory and better play the guiding role of it in sports training. Firstly, it reviews the discovery of the phenomenon of exceeding recovery and the development of this theory, and summarizes its different viewpoints. Secondly, it sorts out the doubts about this theory from the aspects of substantiality and function characters. From the perspective of substantiality, China’s scholars believe that the theory of exceeding recovery lacks understanding of the extreme of human body, and ignores the influence of individual differences and genetic factors on athletic ability, and only describes in a unified way from a comprehensive perspective. Foreign scholars have established theoretical models such as “physical function storage model”, “time model of changeadaptation” and “competitive metapotential model” to question the rationality of this theory. From the functional character aspect, many coaches pointed out that this theory is not effective in practical training applications. If the individual trains according to this, it will only increase fatigue and load, leading to the collapse of the exercise mechanism. Finally, the theory of exceeding recovery is summarized, and it is believed that it should be combined with other theories to play a greater role, and further pointed out that the combination of structural existence theory, overflow theory and catastrophe theory is the new direction of future research.
Key words:  exceeding recovery; exceeding compensation; competitive sport; training; function; load; questioning; combinaion

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