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高原对抗赛竞走后备人才运动动机研究
周长浩
(天津市市政工程学校)
摘要:
采用心理测试法、数理统计法和访谈法,对三个年龄阶段(12—13岁、14—15岁、16—17岁)的89名高原省区竞走项目高水平后备人才的心理变量因素进行比较与分析。结果表明:女子运动员参与竞走项目的运动动机优于男子,且在12—13岁、16—17岁分别达到高度显著性和显著性差异,男子运动员的鉴别原则优于女子;三个年龄段不同训练年限的运动员的个我取向动机平均分几乎全部高于社会取向动机,在14—15岁达到显著性;12—13岁运动员参加竞走项目的内部动机越强,运动员选择并从事竞走项目的动机越高,外部行为(奖励和约束)的意义、社会积极的评价和导向(教练的鼓励、父母的支持、队友的帮助),有助于运动员选择并愿意从事竞走的艰苦训练;教练、父母的期望越高,明星运动员积极的社会效应,能显著提高16—17岁运动员的取胜欲望。在此基础上提出对运动员实施心理训练的建议。
关键词:  竞走  后备人才  运动动机  目标定向
DOI:
基金项目:
Research on the Exercise Motivation of Reserve Talents for Plateau Racewalking Competitions
ZHOU Chang-hao
(Tianjin Municipal Engineering School)
Abstract:
By methods of psychological test, mathematical statistics and interview, factors of the psychological variables of 89 reserve-level talents in racewalking of three plateau provinces (12-13 years old, 14-15 years old, 16-17 years old) are compared and analyzed. The results show that the exercise motivation of female athletes participating in racewalking events is superior to that of male athletes, and the difference is highly significant between them at the age of 12-13, and significant at 16-17. The distinction principles of male athletes are better than female. The mean of individual-oriented motivation of athletes from three age groups with different training length are all higher than the social-oriented motivation, reaching significance at the age of 14-15. The larger internal motivation athletes possess at the age of 12-13, the larger motivation they choose to engage in racewalking. The significance of external behavior (rewards and constraints), positive evaluation and societal orientation (coach’s encouragement, parental support, teammate’s help) help the athletes choose and oblige themselves to engaging in the hard training of racewalking. Higher expectations from coaches and parents, and positive social effects of star athletes can significantly improve the victory desire in 16-17 years old athletes. On this basis, some suggestions are put forward for implementing psychological training onto athletes.
Key words:  racewalking  reserve talent  exercise motivation  target orientation

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