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多轮次赛制下投掷运动员竞技表现特征及参赛策略的实证研究
姜宏斌
0
(1.浙江越秀外国语学院,浙江 绍兴312000;2.安阳工学院,河南 安阳455000)
摘要:
以赛制及规则设置对竞技表现影响为视角,探讨多赛次多轮次赛程中竞技表现特征及变化趋势,为运动竞赛提供理论认知及参赛策略。基于里约奥运会投掷项目成绩记录、犯规、弃权、SB、PB等样本数据,采用文献资料法、录像观察法、数理统计法等方法,对参赛选手竞技表现的稳定性、波动性、随机性等特征及嬗变予以实证探究。研究发现:①弃权以资格赛第2—3轮居多,是八强及奖牌选手保存体能的一种参赛策略;随赛程深入低到高等级运动员先后涉足犯规且愈演愈烈,人均犯规次数由无缘晋级决赛选手的087飙升到八强选手的123。②不同项目运动员试投成功率及发挥率存在显著性差异;不同项目及性别运动员试投成绩变异系数(即竞技表现波动性)无显著性差异。③比赛名次与竞技表现波动性不相关,其与竞技实力(SB、PB)及临场发挥率显著相关。④受项目特征、性别差异、参赛策略及体能分配等因素制约,参赛选手最佳成绩整体呈现轮次分布随机性及不确定性。建议运动员赛前应以提升竞技实力为本,客观设定竞赛目标;赛间以我为主,合理利用规则,适时调整参赛策略,实现运动成绩突破与比赛名次提升。
关键词:  投掷;竞技表现;赛制轮次;弃权;犯规
DOI:
基金项目:2017年度河南省教育厅人文社会科学研究资助计划项目(2017 ZZJH 001);2018年度河南省高等学校重点科研软科学资助项目(18A890001)
An Empirical Study on the Performance Characteristics and Competition Strategies of Throwers under the Competition System of Multiple Rounds
JIANG Hongbin
(1.Zhejiang Yuexiu University of Foreign Languages,Shaoxing 312000,China; 2.Anyang Institute of Technology, Anyang 455000, China)
Abstract:
This paper discusses the characteristics and trends of competitive performance in multiple competitions and multiple rounds from the perspective of the influence of competition system and rules setting on competitive performance to provide theoretical cognition and competition strategies for sports competitions. It makes an empirical study on the stability, volatility, randomness and other characteristics and evolution of competitive performance of competitors by using the methods of literature, video observation and mathematical statistics based on the sample data of Rio Olympic throwing events, such as result record, fouls, waivers, SB, PB, etc. The study finds that: ① Abstention in the second and third round of qualification competition is a kind of competition strategy for the top eight and medal players to keep their physical strength. With the deepening of the competition, the lowlevel and highlevel athletes successively involved in fouls and became increasingly fierce. The number of fouls per capita soared from 087 of those who were not qualified for the final to 123 of the top eight. ②There are significant differences in the success rate and exertion rate of trial throwing of athletes in different events and no significant difference in the coefficient of variation of trial throwing performance of athletes in different events and genders (ie. the fluctuation of competitive performance). ③There is no correlation between the competition ranking and the fluctuation of competitive performance, which is significantly related to the competitive strength (SB, PB) and the onthespot play rate. ④The overall best performance of contestants presents the randomness and uncertainty of round distribution restricted by the factors such as project characteristics, gender differences, competition strategies and physical distribution. It is suggested that the athletes should take the improvement of competitive strength as the basis and set objective competition goals before the competition. The athletes should take oneself as the dominant factor, make rational use of the rules, adjust the competition strategies in time during the competition to achieve the breakthrough of sport results and the promotion of competition ranking.
Key words:  throwing;athletic performance;rounds;waiver;

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