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血流限制训练的效果、作用机制与实践策略
陆锦华
0
(南京体育学院,南京210014)
摘要:
运用文献资料法和逻辑分析法,对血流限制训练的效果、作用机制与实践策略进行了梳理和总结,为更好实施BFR训练提供参考。发现,BFR训练对骨骼肌的肌肥大和肌肉力量增强具有积极的促进作用。单独使用BFR训练可以减轻康复期间患者的肌肉废用性萎缩,BFR结合低负荷有氧运动可以促进老年群体肌肥大和力量增强。BFR结合低负荷抗阻训练被证明可以使肌肉收益最大化,锻炼群体和运动员群体均适用,既可作为一种独立的训练方法也可与传统高负荷抗阻训练相结合。尽管作用机制尚不完全明确,但代谢应激反应的增强被认为是其主要的作用机制。血流限制压力参数与训练变量对肌肉的生理反应和训练适应非常重要。血流限制压力参数需要考虑袖带的材质和宽度以及施加的限制压力值和加压部位,训练变量需要考虑训练类型、训练负荷、训练量、间歇时间和训练频率。BFR结合低负荷抗阻训练,要确保使用的袖带宽度以及限制压力值适宜,通常选择完全闭塞动脉血流压力值的50%—80%。训练类型可以选择单关节训练或多关节训练,训练负荷一般选择20%—40%1RM,组间间歇时间一般安排30—60秒,训练量宜维持在较高水平(75次左右),短时高频次的训练安排是可行的。
关键词:  BFR;血流限制训练;有氧运动;抗阻训练;袖带;间歇;训练量;频次
DOI:
基金项目:
Effect, Mechanism and Practical Strategy of Blood Flow Restriction Training
LU Jinhua
(Nanjing Sport Institute,Nanjing 210014, China)
Abstract:
This paper summarizes the effect, mechanism and practice strategy of blood flow restriction training by using the methods of literature and logic analysis to provide reference for better implementation of BFR training. It shows that BFR training had a positive effect on muscle hypertrophy and muscle strength. BFR training alone can reduce the muscle wasting atrophy of patients during rehabilitation. BFR combined with low load aerobic exercise can promote muscle hypertrophy and strength enhancement in the elderly. BFR combined with low load resistance training has been proved to maximize muscle benefits, which can be used as an independent training method or combined with traditional high load resistance training. Although the mechanism of action is not clear, the enhancement of metabolic stress is regarded to be the main mechanism. Blood flow restriction pressure parameters and training variables are very important for muscle physiological response and training adaptation. The material and width of the cuff, the limited pressure value and the pressurized part need to be considered for the parameters of blood flow limited pressure. The training type, training load, training volume, interval time and training frequency need to be taken into account for the training variables. BFR combined with low load resistance training should be ensured the appropriate cuff width and limited pressure value, usually 50%—80% of the total occlusion arterial blood pressure value is adopted. The training type can be single joint training or multi joint training. The training load is generally 20%—40% 1RM and the interval between groups is generally 30—60 seconds. The training amount should be kept at a high level (about 75 times) and the training arrangement of short time and high frequency is feasible.
Key words:  BFR; blood flow restriction training; aerobic exercise; resistance training; cuff; interval; training volume; frequency

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